Learning Outcomes - Understanding According to Experts, Functions, Objectives, Types & Factors - For the discussion this time we will review the Learning Outcomes which in this case include understanding according to experts, functions, goals, types and factors, to better understand and understand see the review below.

Understanding Learning Outcomes

Learning outcomes are the abilities possessed by students after receiving their learning experience. These abilities include cognitive, affective and psychomotor aspects. Learning outcomes can be seen through evaluation activities aimed at obtaining evidentiary data that will indicate the level of student ability to achieve learning objectives. The learning outcomes examined in this study are social studies cognitive learning outcomes that include three levels, namely knowledge, understanding, and application. The instrument used to measure student learning outcomes on cognitive aspects is a test.

Understanding Learning Outcomes According to Experts

Implementation of learning is the result of learning, well the following is stated the definition of learning outcomes according to experts, including:

  • According to Dimyati and Mudjiono "2006"

Learning outcomes are the results achieved in the form of numbers or scores after being given a test of learning outcomes at the end of each learning. The value obtained by students becomes a reference to see the mastery of students in receiving subject matter.

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  • According to Djamarah and Zain "2006"

Learning outcomes are what students get after learning activities.

  • According to Hamalik "2008"

Learning outcomes are changes in behavior in a person that can be observed and measured in the form of knowledge, attitudes and skills. These changes can be interpreted as an increase and better development before the ignorant know.

  • According to Mulyasa "2008"

Learning outcomes are overall student learning achievement that is an indicator of competence and the degree of change in behavior in question. Competencies that must be mastered by students need to be stated in such a way that they can be assessed as a form of student learning outcomes that refers to direct experience.

  • According to Winkel "Followed by Purwanto, 2010"

Learning outcomes are changes that cause humans to change their attitudes and behavior.

  • According to Sudjana "2010"

Stating the results of learning are abilities possessed by students after he has received learning experiences.

  • According to Suprijono "2009"

Learning outcomes are patterns of actions, ideals, understandings, attitudes, appreciation and skills.

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  • According to Nana Sudjana "2009: 3"

Defining student learning outcomes is essentially a change in behavior as a result of learning in a broader sense covering the cognitive, affective and psychomotor fields.

  • According to Benjamin S. Bloom "Dimyati and Mudjiono, 2006: 26-27"

Which in terms of mentioning six types of cognitive domain behavior as follows:

  • Knowledge, reaching the ability of the memory of the things that have been learned and stored in memory. Knowledge is related to facts, events, understanding rules, theories, principles or methods.
  • Understanding, includes the ability to grasp the meaning and meaning of what is learned.
  • Implementation, including the ability to apply methods and rules to deal with real and new problems, for example using principles.
  • The analysis includes the ability to break down an entity into parts so that the overall structure can be well understood, for example reducing problems into smaller parts.
  • Synthesis, includes the ability to form a new pattern, for example the ability to compile a program.
  • Evaluation includes the ability to form opinions about several things based on certain criteria, for example the ability to assess the results of the test.

Learning Outcomes Function

According to Suryabrata "2001" stated several functions of assessment in the educational process, namely:

1. Psychological Basis

Psychologically a person needs to know how far he has succeeded in achieving his goals, the problem of psychological need for knowledge about the results of the effort he has done can be viewed from two sides, namely in terms of students and in terms of educators.

  1. In
    terms of students A child in determining attitudes and behavior is often guided by adults, with the teacher's opinion about learning outcomes have been obtained, the child feels to have a handle, guidelines and live in certainty. In addition, a child also needs to know his status in front of his friends, classified whether he is "whether a child is smart and so on" also sometimes he needs to compare with his friends and the best tool to see this is the opinion of educators "especially teachers" towards their progress.
  2. In terms of educators
    A professional educator needs to know the results of his efforts as a guide in running further businesses.
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2. Basic Didactic

The didactic basis includes:

  • From the aspect of the Dididk Children
    Knowledge of the progress that has been achieved generally affects both the subsequent achievement, besides that with the test of learning outcomes, students can also find out the strengths and weaknesses they have so that students can use their knowledge to advance their achievements.
  • In terms of educators
    With the test of learning outcomes, a teacher can also find out the extent of weaknesses and strengths in teaching. Knowing the advantages and disadvantages in teaching will be a capital for teachers to determine further efforts. In addition, the learning achievement test also serves to help teachers assess students' readiness, find out the status of children in their class, help teachers determine students in group formation, assist teachers in improving teaching methods and assist teachers in providing additional subject matter.

3. Administrative Basis

  1. Provide data to be able to determine the status of students in their class.
  2. Provide a summary of all the results of the work done by an educational institution.
  3. Is the core of student learning progress reports towards the lever or guardian.

Purpose of Learning Outcomes

According to Sudjana "2005" the objectives of evaluating learning outcomes are as follows:

  • Describe students' learning skills so that they can know their strengths and weaknesses in various fields of study or meta lessons they go through. By describing the skills, it can also be seen the position of the ability of students compared to other students.
  • Knowing the success of the education process and teaching in schools is how far the effectiveness is in changing student behavior towards the expected educational goals.
  • Determine the follow-up of the results of the assessment, namely to make improvements and improvements in terms of education and teaching programs and their implementation systems.
  • Provide accountability "accountability" from the school to the parties concerned.
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Kinds of Learning Outcomes

Judging from its function, according to Sudjana "2005" divides the assessment into three types which include:

  1. Formative assessment is an assessment carried out at the end of a teaching and learning program to see the level of success of the teaching and learning process itself.
  2. Summative assessment is an assessment carried out at the end of the program unit, namely the end of the quarterly, the end of the semester and the end of the year, this assessment is oriented towards products rather than processes.
  3. Diagnostic assessment is an assessment that aims to see the weaknesses of students and their causes.
  4. Selective assessment is an assessment that aims for the purpose of selection, for example, an entrance examination to a particular educational institution.
  5. Placement assessment is an assessment conducted to determine the prerequisite skills needed for a learning program and mastery learning as programmed before starting learning activities for the program.

Factors That Influence Learning Outcomes

Learning outcomes as one indicator of the achievement of learning objectives are not separated from the factors that influence the learning outcomes themselves. According to Sugihartono et al "2007: 76-77", mention the factors that influence learning outcomes as follows:

  • Internal factors are factors that exist in individuals who are learning, internal factors include, physical factors and psychological factors.
  • External factors are factors that exist outside the individual, external factors include family factors, school factors and community factors.